Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing risedronic acid with placebo, vitamin D or calcium (or both) in men, were eligible for inclusion. Eligible trials were required to have a follow-up duration of at least 12 months and report the incidence of fractures (based on the patient rather than the number of fractures) as the primary or secondary outcome.
The included trials were conducted in Japan, UK and Germany. Patients included men with or without Parkinson’s disease, men who had experienced stroke, and men receiving corticosteroid therapy for 12 months or more. Where reported, mean ages ranged between 55 and 76 years. Treatment durations ranged between 12 and 24 months. Risedronic acid 2.5mg or 5mg was administered with or without ergocalciferol or calcium, and vitamin D. Some placebo groups included the administration of supplements.
Two reviewers assessed the studies for inclusion. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus.