Sixteen studies (n=257) comprised three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), two non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCT), three cohort studies, three case series and five case reports. The quality of the included studies was generally low, with inclusion and exclusion criteria not stipulated, lack of blinding and little reporting of power calculations and statistical tests.
Movement quality: One RCT showed significant improvements in attention, motor control, language processing, reading and the ability to regulate aggression after Interactive Metronome training in children diagnosed with ADHD. Another RCT investigated computer game play and showed significant improvements in computer game skill, but not movement or kinematic analysis. The third RCT did not show any differences in upper extremity control between the intervention and control groups after practice with the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise system.
Spatial orientation skills and mobility: In one non-RCT, children with cerebral palsy significantly improved on tests of spatial skills after training with two-dimensional and three-dimensional models of mazes. In another study, children with disabilities who were inexperienced wheelchair drivers improved driving performance after simulator training, but did not attain the same level as experienced drivers.
Motivation, self-efficacy and playfulness: In one RCT in children with cerebral palsy, no significant results were shown on measures of self-efficacy after playing interactive games (except for the subtests on social acceptance, in that the children felt they had more friends and were well liked).