A total of 18 studies were presented in the review (n=4,922). The authors focused their results on the eight newly found studies (n=2,675) in the context of 10 studies from a previous review (see Other Publications of Related Interest). The newly found studies were five RCTs (n=706), one retrospective cohort study (n=1,450), one prospective cohort study (n=477) and one case-control study (n=42); only three of these studies were reported to be rigorously conducted. Three RCTs reported the method of randomisation, one had clearly concealed allocation and three were assessor-blinded. Losses to follow-up (where reported) ranged from less than 10% to more than 20%.
Patient education interventions (five studies, including three RCTs): Evidence from two RCTs suggested no statistically significant differences between individual needs-based multidisciplinary treatment (compared with usual care or no follow-up) in terms of neurobehavioural outcome or improvement in post concussion symptoms, quality of life and community integration at 12 months post injury. Positive effects on symptoms were reported in two cohort studies that provided follow-up with structured advice and reassurance, and an outpatient multidisciplinary intervention.
Cognitive rehabilitation interventions (three studies, including two RCTs): All three studies focused on cognitive remediation and reported significant improvements (p<0.05) in cognitive functioning, emotional adjustment and functional status.