Eleven studies that detailed 18 treatments (seven randomised controlled trials and four pre-post design studies) were included in meta-analyses (n=1,081). Included studies generally had a short-term follow-up (lengths of follow-up were not reported).
For Child Sexual Behaviour Inventory-Total, the pooled effect size of 18 treatments for sexual behaviour problems was estimated at 0.46 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.58).
For the Child Behaviour Checklist-Total, the pooled effect size of 16 treatments for sexual behaviour problems was estimated at 0.49 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.63). No significant heterogeneity was observed.
Regression analyses showed that the following factors had a significant impact on treatment effects: family involvement, pre-school age group, a child practice element (self-control skills), and four parent practice elements (parenting/behaviour management skills, rules about sexual behaviour, sex education and abuse prevention skills).