Twenty quantitative and three qualitative studies were included (number of participants not stated).
Fourteen of the studies evaluated existing services. Five analysed data collected routinely from rehabilitation programmes or state databases.
Programme-based vocational rehabilitation model:
Seven studies, five of which were medium-quality studies.
There was weak evidence that people with traumatic brain injury who completed the programme had improved vocational outcomes (four studies) and were more likely to gain paid work at a competitive wage, earn more and work more hours (one study). There was weak evidence that about half remain employed one year post-placement (two studies).
Supported employment model:
Six studies comprised one high-quality and five medium-quality studies.
Four studies showed weak evidence that provision of supported employment enabled some previously unemployed individuals with post-traumatic brain injury to be employed within the supported employment model and that employment could be maintained for several years. There was weak evidence that provision of this rehabilitation model correlated with gaining employment that lasted at least 90 days (one study).
Case co-ordinated model:
Six studies comprised three high-quality, one medium-quality and two low-quality studies; the low quality study was not included in the evaluation of evidence.
There was moderate evidence that the case co-ordinated model produced higher employment than previously reported (two studies) and weak evidence that intervention within the first year post-injury was associated with more rapid placement in employment than not receiving the intervention within the first year post-injury (one study).
Three studies included two judged as rigorous.
Two studies reported that return to work was viewed by patients as "having achieved normality".