Nineteen studies were included for the review (n=at least 617): 17 randomised controlled trials (n=at least 507) and two before-after clinical trials (n=110).
Body weight significantly decreased with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Irvingia gabonensis, Garcinia atroviridis, a compound of Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis, bofutsushosan, Slimax and compounds that contained caffeine and ephedra. Body fat significantly decreased with Cissus quadrangularis, bofutsushosan, Garcinia atroviridis, a compound of capsicum and lipotropic nutrients and a compound that contained caffeine and ephedra. Waist and hip circumferences significantly decreased with Slimax, Caralluma fimbriata and Cissus quadrangularis.
Adverse effects noted were loose bowel movements with Bofutsushosan and dry mouth, insomnia, nervousness, palpitations and headaches with compounds that contained caffeine and ephedra.
Findings for other outcomes were reported in the review. There was only one study for each intervention except for caffeine and ephedra where there were two or three studies for each outcome.