Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of clearly described positioning programmes for patients with stroke were eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to report shoulder range of motion as an outcome.
Mean age of participants in the included studies was 52 to 70 years. Mean time since onset of stroke was 14 to 84 days. Positioning programmes were administered for 20 to 30 minutes, two to three times a day, five to seven days per week for four to 12 weeks (where stated).
The studies were selected independently by two reviewers.