Forty-four RCTs, 34 parallel and 10 crossover trials, met the inclusion criteria (at least 3,945 patients; one trial did not report the number randomised; where reported, range five to 910; 25 trials were of 50 or fewer patients). The median duration of follow-up ranged from two hours to five years. The median Jadad score was three; range zero to five. Of the 44 trials, 11 described the method of randomisation, four described adequate allocation concealment, 25 reported patient blinding to treatment, 14 described the method of blinding, and 20 used an inappropriate statistical analysis.
There was some evidence for the efficacy of trolamine salicylate, glycosaminoglycan polysulphate, fiorinal, and FIPA, splints for first carpal metacarpal joint osteoarthritis, occupational therapy, dextrose proliferative injection therapy (prolotherapy), oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stinging nettle leaf, topical capsaicin, vitamin B12 with folate, yoga, leeches, strength training exercise, and spa therapy, chondroitin sulphate, and chondroitin polysulphate.