Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies with a control population and pre-post studies of patients with sickle-cell disease who underwent any intervention and that reported any outcome.
Most studies evaluated either pain management during vaso-occlusive crisis or patient adherence to medication. Studies included patients (adults and children) and nurses and doctors in Canada, USA and UK.
Provider interventions were classified as clinical protocol/pathway, provider sensitivity training, establishment of a day hospital, audit and feedback and fast-track admission. Pain management and adherence to medication were the measured patient interventions.
Two reviewers performed the study selection.