Twelve studies were included in the review (n=1, 471 participants; range 18 to 623), including 10 RCTs and two non-controlled studies.
Four studies reported statistically significant improvement in activity-related outcomes for the following interventions: physical activity, telephone counselling, telephone counselling plus mail, and low-impact aerobic dance. No other studies reported a statistically significant increase in physical activity.
Many of the studies cited social support as a primary intervention; four through forming a buddy system among participants; and two through including family members in programme participation.
Three of the twelve studies reviewed reported a theoretical perspective guiding intervention implementation and evaluation, but did not demonstrate a significant difference in physical activity compared with other groups.
Two studies reported decreases in body mass index, two studies indicated increased participant knowledge, and three studies noted increased social support.
A number of other outcomes based on single studies were also reported.