Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the virus capsid antigen-immunoglobulin A test in patients with suspected nasopharyngeal carcinoma, using a diagnostic threshold of antibody titre of 1:5 or more for a positive test, were eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to use the reference standard of histological analysis of standard paraffin-embedded sections to determine the presence or absence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to report sufficient data to populate 2x2 contingency tables (numbers of true positive, false negative, false positive, and true negative test results).
Conference abstracts and studies of less than ten specimens were excluded.
Included studies used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (most studies) or indirect immunofluorescence assay. The most frequently used antibody titre thresholds in included studies were 1:10 and 1:5. All included studies were Chinese articles.
Studies were independently assessed for inclusion by two reviewers and disagreements were resolved by discussion.