Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any intervention for cognitive impairment were eligible for inclusion. Trials were required to enrol participants aged at least 18 years with a clinically defined stroke and confirmed cognitive impairment. Trials were required to report functional ability, defined as either basic or instrumental activities of daily living. Trials that assessed the impact of pharmaceutical interventions were excluded. Also excluded were trials with mixed populations except where patients with stroke comprised at least 50% of the population and had separately reported data.
Interventions assessed in the included studies were: time pressure management; cognitive skill remediation retraining of time estimation; attention process training; and provision of feedback on results of extensive cognitive testing. Patients were recruited from hospital in-patient units or rehabilitation centres and outpatients. Mean or median age ranged from 49.5 to 73.4 years. Control groups received care as usual.
Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion at each stage of the assessment process. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or arbitration by a third reviewer.