Studies that explicitly mentioned an AA or NA treatment model, included participants aged 12 to 22 years old and had a sample size greater than four were eligible for inclusion. Studies were required to report alcohol or drug use behavioural outcome data.
All except one included study had a majority of male participants. Most participants in all studies were white. Various substance abuse problems were represented; these included alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and polydrug use.
The author did not state how the studies were selected for the review.