Twenty-three studies were included (n=2,045 participants). Nineteen studies included an appropriate patient spectrum and in four studies patient spectrum was unclear. There was a possibility of partial verification bias in 11 studies. Uninterpretable results and withdrawals were poorly reported.
Full thickness tear (22 studies, n=1,843): Summary sensitivity was 95% (95% CI 90 to 97%). Summary specificity was 96% (95% CI 93 to 98%). Subgroup analyses showed similar results. None of the analyses showed substantial heterogeneity between studies.
Partial thickness tear (15 studies, n=1,456): Summary sensitivity was 72% (95% CI 58 to 83%). Summary specificity was 93% (95% CI 89 to 96%). Subgroup analyses showed similar results. None of the analyses showed substantial heterogeneity between studies.
Subacromial bursitis (three studies, n=377): Sensitivity ranged from 79% to 81%. Specificity ranged from 94% to 98%.
Calcifying tendinitis (two studies, n=300): Both studies reported sensitivity of 100%. Specificity estimates were 85% and 98%.
Tendinopathy (two studies, n=97): Sensitivity estimates were 67% and 93%. Specificity estimates were 88% and 100%.