The Cochrane Library (Issue 1 2010), MEDLINE (from 1950), EMBASE (from 1980), PsycINFO (from 1967), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (both from 1970) and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (from 1990) were searched to March 2010 for relevant studies; search terms were provided. Meeting abstracts from the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association and Diabetes UK were searched. Websites of Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov and UK Clinical Research Network were searched. References of retrieved papers were checked to identify additional studies. The authors contacted experts in the field to identify further studies. There were no language restrictions.