Twenty-two studies were included in the review (n=1,251 participants, range three to 214). Twelve RCTs had good overall methodological quality (median PEDro score 6, range 2 to 8). Allocation concealment was applied in four studies, assessor blinding was used in eight, and five studies undertook intention-to-treat analysis.
Exercise programmes (nine studies, n=677; eight RCTs): Over the short term there was some evidence to suggest that exercise programmnes were effective in relieving whiplash-related pain.
Interdisciplinary interventions (nine studies, n=367; two RCTs): Two small RCTs provided conflicting results for cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT). Five of non-RCTs found that interdisciplinary interventions yielded significant benefits. Interventions were diverse.
There was very limited evidence that both manual joint manipulation (one case series) and myofeedback training (one case series) may have provided some benefit. Melatonin supplementation (one RCT) did not appear to be effective.