Seven trials (five RCTs and two controlled clinical trials) were included (n=1,503). One was an unpublished thesis. Sample sizes ranged from 59 to 450. PEDro scores ranged from 4 to 8.
Compared with controls, Otago exercise programme was significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of death over 12 months (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.80; seven trials) and fall rates (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.79; six trials). There was no significant difference in the risk of a serious or moderate injury occurring as the result of a fall between the two groups. No significant heterogeneity was observed in these outcomes.
Only 36.7% of participants in the Otago programme group who remained in the studies at 12 months were still exercising at least three times per week.