Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of exercise training or physical activity on physical fitness in adults age 70 years or older who were in long-term care facilities and nursing homes were eligible for inclusion. The relevant outcomes included balance, ADL, disability, co-ordination, endurance, flexibility, muscle strength, frailty, physical activity, functional performance and institutionalisation (defined in the review). Studies on the effects of physical activity on the prevention of falls were eligible for inclusion. Studies with a primary focus on specific diseases (such as Alzheimer’s and stroke) were excluded.
The included trials studied range of motion, balance training, resistance training, functional training, Tai Chi, strength training, endurance training, flexibility training and gait training alone and in combination. The intensity and duration of interventions varied.
The authors did not state how many reviewers performed study selection.