Fourteen studies (17,847 participants, range 85 to 7,000) assessed case management, 11 studies (31,572 participants, range 265 to 18,143) assessed integrated care and six studies (5,739 participants, range 121 to 2,353) assessed consumer-directed care.
Case management: Eight randomised controlled trials (RCTs), two non-randomised studies and four observational studies, one of which did not have a control group. Quality scores ranged from 14 to 6.5 out of a maximum 15 points. Compared to control, case management improved function (three out of five studies), improved medication management (two out of three studies), increased use of community services (two studies) and reduced nursing home admissions (four out of five studies) and hospital admissions (two out of three studies).
Integrated care: Two RCTs, two non-randomised studies and seven observational studies; quality scores ranged from 12.5 to 7. Compared to control, integrated care increased community service use (two studies) and increased hospital admissions (three out of five studies), but did not appear to improve clinical outcomes.
Consumer-directed care: There were three RCTs, one non-randomised study and two observational studies; quality scores ranged from 10 to 6.5. Compared to control, consumer-directed care improved satisfaction with care (three studies) and increased community service use (two studies) but did not appear to have an effect on clinical outcomes.