Seventeen studies (2,398 patients) were included in the review. Seven studies were quasi-experimental and 10 were experimental studies. The authors stated that six studies did not meet the indicators of methodological quality, although the results of the quality assessment were not reported in detail.
At the end of the intervention, the intervention group participants were less likely to be at a borderline significance level for suicidal or self-harm events than the control group participants (OR 1.492, 95% CI 1.001 to 2.224; six studies; 1,200 patients; Q=2.47, p=0.78, statistically significant heterogeneity).
There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups for suicidal and self-harm events at six to seven months follow-up or at 12 to 18 months follow-up.
Patients who received psychosocial interventions were less likely to report suicide ideation at post-test, at six to seven months follow-up, and at 12 to 18 months follow-up, although these trends were not statistically significant.
Visual appraisals of the forest plots showed no evidence of publication bias.