There were 35 included studies in the review involving 2,318 patients. Sample sizes ranged from 10 to 316 patient. Eighteen studies were randomised and controlled. Six studies were controlled but not explicitly randomised. Eleven studies were non-controlled.
Physiological outcomes alone (18 studies): Seven (of nine) studies found a decrease in phosphorous levels with Therapeutic Patient Education programmes during haemodialysis. Two (of six) studies found a decrease in calcium levels. Three (of three) studies found an improvement in calcium/phosphorus product levels. Six (of six) studies showed a decrease in interdialytic weight gain. Five (of five) studies showed an improvement in knowledge. Not all of these results were statistically significant.
Psychological outcomes alone (four studies): Three (of three) studies found a decrease in depressive affects. Two (of two) studies reported an improvement in self efficacy. One (of two) studies found an improvement in mental quality of life.
Combined outcomes (13 studies): Two (of four) studies showed a decrease in interdialytic weight gain. One (of two) studies found a decrease in phosphorous in the short term. Five (of six) studies found an improvement in physical quality of life. Patient knowledge improved in five (of five) studies, but only three (of seven) studies noted an improvement in mental quality of life and only two (of four) studies identified reductions in anxiety or depression. Further results were reported.