Fifty studies (3,570 patients, 4,706 pregnancies) were included in the meta-analysis. Numbers of patients ranged from seven to 857 and numbers of pregnancies ranged from eight to 1,356.
The overall live birth rate following kidney transplant was 73.5% (95% CI 72.1 to 74.9) and was higher than the general USA population (66.7%). Live birth rates were 69% in Asia, 76% in Australia, 75% in Europe, 79% in the Middle East, 71% in North America and 76% in South America.
The overall post-kidney transplant miscarriage rate of 14.0% (95% CI 12.9 to 15.1) was lower than the USA population (17.1%). Nine point five per cent of pregnancies ended in abortion and 2.5% ended in stillbirths.
Complications of pre-eclampsia (27.0%, 95% CI 25.2 to 28.9) were higher than the general USA population (3.8%). Complications of gestational diabetes (8.0%, 95% CI 6.7 to 9.4) were higher compared to USA data (3.9%). Cesarean sections were more frequent at 56.9% (95% CI 54.9 to 58.9) compared to 31.9%. Preterm deliveries (45.6%, 95% CI 43.7 to 47.5) were more frequent compared to USA data (12.5%).
Additional outcomes data on gestational age, birth weight, rates of acute rejection and graft loss were reported. Estimates of the association between pre-pregnancy factors, mean maternal age, duration between kidney transplant and pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported.