Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that evaluated effectiveness of rifaximin or a fluoroquinolone in preventing travellers' diarrhoea in adult civilian or military travellers were eligible for inclusion.
The primary end point was the overall intention-to-treat risk reduction in incidence of travellers' diarrhoea. The definitions of travellers' diarrhoea were generally similar across studies. Duration of interventions ranged from three to 28 days. Most travellers came from USA and travelled to a broad range of destinations including Mexico, Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey and Nepal (where reported). The dosage and frequency of the rifaximin and fluoroquinolone antibiotics varied; 200mg twice a day to 400mg once a day for Norfloxacin; 250 mg to 500mg once a day for Ciprofloxacin. For Rifaximin the doasage and frequency ranged from 200mg once, twice or three times a day and 550mg, 600mg and 1,100mg once daily. Most of the fluoroquinolone studies were published in 1980s and 1990's and all the rifaximin studies were published after 2004.
Two reviewers were involved in the study selection.