Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of clearly defined pharmacist care (such as assessment of therapy, education and/or adherence) alone or as part of a health care team versus usual care on patients with dyslipidaemia. The primary outcome was the difference between groups in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Secondary outcomes included differences in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the number of patients who achieved target lipid parameters, number who underwent lipid panel measurements, adherence to therapy and/or changes in lipid-lowering therapy. Studies were excluded if they included only one form of contact between patient and pharmacist or where the unit of randomisation was not at the patient level.
Included patients were at risk for cardiovascular or adverse effects, had diabetes, had coronary heart disease or were patients with dyslipidaemia. Studies were conducted in various outpatient settings that included clinics, home and community pharmacy. Just over half the studies used a collaborative care model; the other studies used independent pharmacist care. Pharmacist interventions commonly included education, drug therapy recommendations and adherence assessment. Study durations ranged from 16 weeks to two years (median 12 months).
Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus or referral to a third reviewer.