Eight studies were included in the review: six case series (152 children) and two single case reports (two children). Results from the quality assessment indicated that two out of eight studies were truly representative, two out of eight studies selected patients on a priori criteria, and only two studies had sought and systematically documented adverse effects. All studies used secure written records to determine exposure, reported sufficient follow-up, and objectively assessed the main outcomes.
Combining all case series data (six studies), the success rate of the mother's-kiss technique in removing foreign bodies was 59.9% (95% CI 52 to 67). There were no significant differences when comparing success rates for smooth regular objects versus irregular objects where reported.
No adverse effects were reported in any of the published studies.
Two studies reported rates of general anaesthesia use. One study reported a reduction from 32.5% to 3.2% over comparative six-month periods after the introduction of the mother's-kiss technique. The second study reported a non-significant reduction in rates of general anaesthesia when the mother's-kiss technique was used compared with cases where the technique was not attempted.