Eligible for inclusion were all studies implementing the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes Programme, the Liverpool Care Pathway or an Integrated Care Pathway, and educational/training interventions aimed at adult nursing care home residents, their relatives and staff, in the United Kingdom. Studies had to provide comparative data.
The included interventions were the Gold Standards Framework in Care Homes Programme (Phase two and four) and an integrated care pathway. Outcomes related to residents and relatives were communication, co-ordination, control of symptoms, continuity of care, carer bereavement support, care of the dying, collaboration with other primary care and palliative care specialists, number of crisis admissions to hospital and number of residents dying in hospital. Staff outcomes were levels of knowledge, skill, and behaviour in relation to care provision.
The authors did not state how many reviewers were involved in the selection of studies.