Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with blinded outcome assessment. Treatment group should contain patients having EMG biofeedback alone or with conventional physical therapy, and control group undergoing conventional physical therapy (excluding feedback devices or functional electrical stimulation).
Specific interventions included in the review
EMG biofeedback and conventional physical therapy.
Participants included in the review
Post-stroke adult patients.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Any functional measure of the upper extremity, including upper-extremity function testing, stage of motor recovery, range of motion and muscle strength. Functional outcomes related to movement as opposed to physiological variables.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Decisions of relevance were assessed independently by the two reviewers, using the weighted Kappa statistic to determine inter-observer reliability. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus.