Study designs of evaluations included in the review
All 39 studies were case series.
Specific interventions included in the review
SCS using electrodes either implanted in the epidural space via lamininectomy or by percutaneous insertion.
Participants included in the review
People with chronic back or leg pain who have already had one or more operations for lower-back and/or leg pain.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Return to work, pain, medication use, subsequent operations, functional disability and stimulator use after permanent implantation of spinal cord stimulators.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Two investigators independently reviewed each article to determine whether it met the inclusion criteria, and resolved any disagreements by consensus.