Ten RCTs of interventions for acute (less than 4 weeks) LBP were included; these assessed bedrest (2 RCTs) exercise (4 RCTs), back school (4 RCTs), case management (2 RCTs) and manipulation (2 RCTs).
Bedrest: the published evidence suggests that a brief period of bedrest for acute nonradicular LBP is appropriate, though most patients respond well to early mobilisation.
Exercise: physical therapy exercise for acute LBP appears efficacious, whether through aerobic conditioning, flexibility and/or strengthening, with maximal benefit when the approach is individualised. In addition, long-term exercise appears beneficial in prevention of backache.
Back school: although an ergonomic education for recently injured workers makes inherent sense, there is no definitive, published evidence that back school is more efficacious than placebo for acute LBP.
Case management methods: studies provided no definitive conclusions that could be generalised to different populations.
Manipulation: the poor quality of the RCTs limit the evidence,thus making it difficult to judge the merits of spinal manipulation for the treatment of LBP.