Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included.
Specific interventions included in the review
Exercise; cognitive and behavioural strategies; back school; lumbar facet injections of bupivicaine and methylprednisolone; a rigid corset to support the lumbar-abdominal region.
Participants included in the review
Adults with chronic lower-back pain were included.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Return to work was assessed.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Only studies with a return-to-work outcome measure were included.