Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Inclusion criteria for the study design were not specified.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies of atypical neuroleptics for treating pain were eligible for inclusion. The included studies used tiapride (intravenous and intramuscular formulations), aspirin plus tiapride, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine. Control interventions, where present, were placebo and opioid. The duration of the interventions, where reported, ranged from single dose to 2 days; treatment duration was not reported for most studies.
Participants included in the review
Inclusion criteria for the participants were not specified. The included studies were of patients with cancer pain, low back and neck pain, migraine headache and fibromyalgia.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Studies that assessed pain were eligible for inclusion. The included studies assessed pain using a visual analogue scale, a 4-point rating scale and the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
The authors did not state how the studies were selected for the review, or how many reviewers performed the selection.