Seven studies (n=141) were included.
There was a significant positive effect for the use of personalised audiotapes on behaviour (d=0.70, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.02, p<0.001; four studies); there was significant statistical heterogeneity between studies (I2=71%). A significant positive effect remained after the earliest published study was omitted from the analysis (d=0.61, p<0.001). Removal of this study also reduced heterogeneity (I2=0%).
Of three studies that were not included in the meta-analysis, two found a positive effect of simulated presence therapy for reducing challenging behaviours in dementia, and one reported that there may be individual differences in response (statistical results were not reported).