The mean costs in each group were as follows:
placebo (ISO), $10.6;
oral clonidine, $6.4;
intramuscular clonidine, $2.6;
epidural clonidine, $21.8.
Clonidine reduced isoflurane pharmacy cost by approximately 45%, regardless of the route of administration. However, when the cost of clonidine and the disposable equipment used for its administration were taken into account, the cost of the epidural kit exceeded the savings in isoflurane expense.