Portable bladder ultrasound scanners are of sufficient clinical accuracy in estimating PVR urine volume in most patients.
Studies however report conflicting results regarding the use of the device in children aged less than 36 months and postnatal women.
There was insufficient evidence available to conclude that any of the models of PBUS compared demonstrated superior clinical accuracy.
Evidence suggests that adopting standard protocols, including staff training and identifying appropriate patients, for the use of PBUS is associated with reduced risk of unnecessary catheterisation, reduced UTIs and fewer adverse events, as well as improved patient satisfaction, when compared with catheterisation.
No relevant economic evidence was identified, thus it was not possible to comment on the cost effectiveness of PBUS.
Further research is required on the accuracy and suitability of newer PBUS so that NHS purchasing can be evidence based.