• Welcome to PROSPERO
    International prospective register of systematic reviews
  • Welcome to PROSPERO
    International prospective register of systematic reviews
  • Welcome to PROSPERO
    International prospective register of systematic reviews
  • Welcome to PROSPERO
    International prospective register of systematic reviews
Please note this service will be offline for approximately 60 minutes from 15:00 BST today. Please do not attempt to register any protocols during that time.

Register a review

Registering a review is quick and easy. Just follow these simple steps to register your review in PROSPERO

Search PROSPERO

Search for PROSPERO registrations by entering words in the record or the registration number below

What you will find in PROSPERO

PROSPERO includes protocol details for systematic reviews relevant to health and social care, welfare, public health, education, crime, justice, and international development, where there is a health related outcome.

Systematic review protocols on PROSPERO can include any type of any study design. Reviews of reviews and reviews of methodological issues that contain at least one outcome of direct patient or clinical relevance are also accepted.

Latest new registrations

  1. Factors impacting on the implementation of digital health interventions for people with psychosis or bipolar disorder and/or their relatives and carers: a systematic review protocol 


  2. Oral care of palliative care patients
  3. Conceptual framework for social connectedness in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis
  4. Measuring bonding and attachment in the early parent-infant relationship: a systematic review and comparison of currently available, parent-rated, self-report measures
  5. Physical activity and the prevention, reduction, and treatment of alcohol and/or substance use across the lifespan (the PHASE review)

Integrity of data and prospective registration

When to register your review

Registering reviews that are ultimately not completed is unhelpful to the research community and may impact on future funding for the author or research team.

Do not register your review too early. You should have a well-developed protocol in place before you register your review.

You should also have the necessary resource in place before you register your review (notification of award of research funding or firm commitment of author time for unfunded projects).

PROSPERO relies on the integrity of researchers for the accuracy of the data supplied, and the named contacts are accountable for the content of their records. We routinely monitor the time frame given in submissions and seek clarification where this appears overly ambitious prior to confirming registration and providing a PROSPERO registration number. Amendments and updates to the record are made transparent in the audit trail within each record.

On rare occasions, peer reviewers and editors using PROSPERO to compare what was planned with what is reported in the final manuscript, have identified that the initial registration date in PROSPERO post-dates the manuscript submission date to the journal. In these cases the logical explanation is that the stage of review was inaccurately completed in the PROSPERO registration form; otherwise the submission would have been rejected. In such cases, the named contact will be alerted to the issue and given the opportunity to respond within two weeks. If it is confirmed that incorrect information was provided, or no response is received, the content of the PROSPERO record will be removed, leaving the title and the details of the named contact and the following statement:

Since publication of this record it has been established that information provided initially about the stage of the review and anticipated completion date was inaccurate. The review had actually progressed beyond the stage of eligibility for PROSPERO.

Prospective registration aims to facilitate the comparison of reported review findings with what was planned a priori in the protocol. Reviews should ideally be registered before screening against eligibility criteria commences. However, reviews are currently accepted provided they have not progressed beyond the completion of data extraction.

Protocol details for this review should be sought from the named contact.

If this is an update then please tell us why it has been updated

PLEASE NOTE: the text you enter here will appear in the published review under the Release Notes section

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Registering a review on PROSPERO

PROSPERO is an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews in health and social care. Key features from the review protocol are recorded and maintained as a permanent record in PROSPERO. The aim is to provide a comprehensive listing of systematic reviews registered at inception, to help avoid unplanned duplication. By promoting transparency in the process and enabling comparison of reported review findings with what was planned in the protocol PROSPERO also aims to minimise the risk of bias in systematic review. PROSPERO has been developed and is managed by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) at the University of York and is funded by the UK’s National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).

What does registration on PROSPERO involve?

Registration in PROSPERO involves the prospective submission and publication of key information about the design and conduct of a systematic review.

Registration on PROSPERO is free of charge. In return, registrants are accountable for the accuracy and updating of information submitted.

Inclusion criteria

PROSPERO includes details of any ongoing systematic review that has a health related outcome in the broadest sense. Reviews may be of interventions, diagnosis, service delivery, prognostic factors, risk factors, genetic associations, and epidemiological reviews relevant to health and social care, welfare, public health, education, crime, justice, and international development, as long as there is a health related outcome. Systematic review protocols registered on PROSPERO can include studies of any design. Work is underway to facilitate the inclusion of reviews of pre-clinical studies.

Reviews of methodological issues need to contain at least one outcome of direct patient or clinical relevance in order to be included in PROSPERO. The review may also contain a substantial component of methodological review, but this latter component alone is not sufficient for inclusion. For example: a comparison of tools for the diagnosis of a condition may look at how these are reported but as long as an element of assessment of the value of the tools was included and a clinician could use the results to choose the appropriate tool in a given circumstance, it would be included in PROSPERO. Simply looking at the reporting of and/or use of outcomes in research would not be included.

Systematic reviews of reviews will be accepted for registration as long as they meet all the standard PROSPERO eligibility criteria and the registration form includes complete systematic review methodology details.

Ideally reviews should be registered before screening against eligibility criteria commences. However, reviews are currently accepted for registration as long as they have not progressed beyond the completion of data extraction. Scoping reviews and literature reviews are not eligible for inclusion in PROSPERO.

New Cochrane protocols are automatically uploaded. To avoid duplication of records, Cochrane protocols should not be registered separately with PROSPERO.

Submissions must be in English for practical reasons, but search strategies and protocols attached to a record may be in any language.

If you are in any doubt about the eligibility of your review, including the stage of progress please contact crd-register@york.ac.uk for advice.

Accessing and navigating the registration form

Obtain a username and password by following the ‘Join’ link in the top right hand corner of the PROSPERO website.

Once you have joined, you can ‘Sign in’ and then you will be able to select ‘Register a review’ in the left hand column. This opens a page that encourages you to check that your review will meet the inclusion criteria, if you are sure it does, click on ‘Register a review’.

The ‘Register a review’ option opens a four page electronic registration form which has 22 required fields and 18 optional fields. ‘Required’ fields, marked with a red asterisk, must be completed before the Submit button can be accessed. You may save and exit the form at any time, and return at a later date to add or edit information by signing in and going to ‘My PROSPERO records’.

Each page of the form has a: ‘Save’ button, changes are automatically saved when a field is exited, but the save button can be used at any time; a ‘Validate this page’ button, which will highlight any ‘Required’ fields that still need to be completed; and a ‘Print’ button, which will print a copy of the current page only. To print a copy of the whole form, use the ‘Print review’ button on the left hand side of the screen, next to the ‘Submit’ button.

The fields can be completed by cutting and pasting information from your protocol, or you can use the form to help develop your protocol. The form can be saved as a pdf or word processing document if you want to share with others working on the review before submitting.

Providing access to a protocol is not a substitute for entering data into the required fields. Most registrants complete the form in 60 minutes or less.

Brief guidance about the information required in each field is given in the form and more detailed information, with examples, is given below and can be accessed in the form itself by clicking on the ‘more…’ link next to each field.

When you are ready, the form can be sent to the PROSPERO administrators by clicking on Submit.

What happens after submitting a form

Access to your record is suspended during the administrative process. Receipt of submission is acknowledged in an automated email sent to the named contact.

Application forms are checked against the eligibility criteria for PROSPERO and for clarity of content before being approved and published on the register, returned to you for clarification or rejected. You should receive notification within five working days. If you do not, please contact crd-register@york.ac.uk

Once published on the register, the record will again become accessible for editing.

Making changes, amendments and updating a published record

Changes, amendments and updates can be made by signing in, going to My PROSPERO records and opening the form. Once the changes have been made, click the Submit button. You will be asked to give brief details of the changes made. The information entered here will appear in the public record and should inform users of the database of the nature of the changes made (e.g. removed one of the outcome measures; changed the anticipated completion date).

All submitted edits and changes to a PROSPERO record will be recorded, dated and be made available within the record audit trail. The most recent version will appear with previous versions accessible from dated links on the right hand side of the screen, with the revision notes.

What to do after completing a review and after publishing the findings

Records remain permanently on PROSPERO. Once the review is completed this information should be recorded in the record together with the anticipated publication date. The bibliographic reference and electronic links to publications should be added to the record by the authors. In the absence of a publication, details of availability of the review’s unpublished results, or reasons for the termination of the review, should be documented. Reminder emails with detailed instructions on what to do, are sent on the anticipated completion and the anticipated publication dates.
Links to critical abstracts in the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) were added to records as appropriate.

Registering an update of a completed review

If you decide to update a completed review that has a PROSPERO record, you can access this by signing in and going to My PROSPERO records. You can make changes to the protocol and submit it as an update and it will be processed as for a new review. It is important to decide if you are updating a review, or in fact because of changes to the protocol, are doing a new review. The following definitions have been provided to help you decide.

What is an update of a review?

Updating a systematic review is a discrete event during which efforts are made to identify and incorporate new evidence into a previously completed systematic review An ‘update’ may be any modified version of a review that includes the findings of a more recent search than the previously completed version of the review. It can still be considered an update even if the new search reveals no additional studies. Any newly identified studies should be assessed and, if appropriate, incorporated into the updated review. An update might also be an opportunity to conduct new analyses or add additional information to the review.

What constitutes a new review rather than an update?

It can be difficult to decide whether an update to a review is in fact a new review. There is little published guidance on this. PROSPERO adopts a pragmatic approach. If changes to the review questions or methods are so substantial that they require major changes to the original protocol, this should be regarded as a new review rather than an update. Examples that would constitute a new review:

  • addition of new treatment comparisons e.g. direct comparison of different drugs, when the old review included only comparisons of drug with placebo;
  • substantial changes to the population being studied e.g. adding adults to a review that was previously restricted to children;
  • exclusion criteria in the old review become inclusion criteria in the new review;
  • introduction of new analysis techniques e.g. a switch from aggregate data metaanalyses to individual participant meta-analyses.

If in doubt, a new record for a new review should be created. This will minimise the complexity of the editing to the original record in PROSPERO and make it easier for users to distinguish between the original review and the later version. Links between the new and original review can be added in the registration form.

Guide to completing the registration fields

The following guidance notes follow the format of the registration form, which has four sections. The guidance includes a description and example of what is required for each of the fields within each section.

SPECIAL NOTES:

We accept information in good faith and rely upon the integrity of researchers to ensure the validity of all the data presented in PROSPERO records. Action will be taken if inaccuracies in data, particularly stage of review and anticipated completion date, are identified at any time.

PROSPERO records need to be fully searchable so the information requested needs to be in the fields, even if access to a protocol is given in Field 34. The records are permanent but links are not. Not everyone has internet speeds to enable them to download attachments; not everyone has access to pay per view journals where protocols may be published. We therefore do not accept submissions that refer the reader to the protocol without providing the basic information in the fields.

Start typing in the box below to search for indiviual words or phrases. This is a simple search which looks only in the Titles of reviews and the review ID number. You can perfom a more refined search by using the filtered search page
Please answer these screening questions to establish whether your protocol is eligible for PROSPERO.

Confirm that your review is eligible for inclusion in PROSPERO. Please note that PROSPERO does not register scoping or mapping reviews

Is your review eligible for inclusion?

YES NO

Please go back and search PROSPERO before continuing

The inclusion criteria for registration are explained in the guidance. If after reading the guidance you are unsure if your review is within scope please contact the help desk at crd-register@york.ac.uk to inquire.

We look forward to receiving future submissions from you.

Go back to registering a new review Go back to the home page
Registering a review is easy. Please read the guidance notes for registering a Clinical systematic review or Pre-clinical systematic review on PROSPERO then just follow the three step process below
Step 1
Check the inclusion criteria to make sure that your review is eligible for inclusion in PROSPERO
Step 2
Ensure that your review protocol is in its (near) final form and that no major changes are anticipated at this stage - e.g. if your protocol will be peer reviewed it will usually be sensible to wait until this is complete before registering.
Step 3
Search PROSPERO to ensure that your review has not already been registered by another member of your team
Step 4
Search PROSPERO to ensure that you are not unnecessarily duplicating a review that is being done by another team or has been registered previously

Please complete all mandatory fields below (marked with an asterisk *) and as many of the non-mandatory fields as you can then click Submit to submit your registration. You don't need to complete everything in one go, this record will appear in your My PROSPERO section of the web site and you can continue to edit it until you are ready to submit. Click Show help below or click on the icon to see guidance on completing each section.

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