References and resources

PROSPERO - Guidance notes for registering a systematic review

Download the guidance notes for registering a systematic review on PROSPERO.

Systematic review methods

Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Systematic reviews: CRD's guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. York: University of York; 2009. Available from:

Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2009. Available from:

Jackson N, Waters E and for the Guidelines for Systematic Reviews in Health Promotion and Public Health Taskforce. Criteria for the systematic review of health promotion and public health interventions. Health Promot. Int. 2005; 20(4): 367-374

The Joanna Briggs Institute. Joanna Briggs Institute: Reviewers’ Manual. The Joanna Briggs Institute. 2014:1-197.  Available from

Petticrew M, Roberts H. Systematic reviews in the social sciences: a practical guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing; 2006.

Reporting systematic reviews

PRISMA Statement website

Altman DG. Systematic reviews of evaluations of prognostic variables. BMJ 2001; 323: 224-228.

Leeflang MM, Deeks JJ, Gatsonis C, Bossuyt PM. Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Working Group. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. Annals of Internal Medicine 2008; 149: 889-897.

Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, et al. (2009) The PRISMA Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies That Evaluate Health Care Interventions: Explanation and Elaboration. PLoS Med 6(7): e1000100. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100

Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, Shekelle P, Stewart LA, the PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev 2015;4:1.

Moher D, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, for the PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 2009;339:b2535

Sagoo GS, Little J, Higgins JPT. Systematic reviews of genetic association studies. PLoS Medicine 2009; 6(3): e1000028.

Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, Shekelle P, Stewart LA, the PRISMA-P Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ 2015;350:g7647

The EQUATOR Network. Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research. The resource centre for good reporting of health research studies.

Registering systematic reviews

Booth A. PROSPERO’s progress and activities 2012/13. Syst Rev 2013, 2:111

Booth A, Clarke M, Dooley G, Ghersi D, Moher D, Petticrew M, Stewart L. PROSPERO at one year: an evaluation of its utility. Systematic Reviews 2013;2:4

Booth A, Clarke M, Dooley G, Ghersi D, Moher D, Petticrew M, Stewart L. The nuts and bolts of PROSPERO: an international prospective register of systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:2

Booth A, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Moher D, Petticrew M, Stewart L. Establishing a Minimum Dataset for Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews: An International Consultation. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(11): e27319.

Booth A, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Moher D, Petticrew M, Stewart L. An international registry of systematic-review protocols. Lancet 2011;377(9760):108-109

Chang SM, Slutsky J. Debunking myths of protocol registration. Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:4

Chien PFW, Khan KS, Siassakos D. Registration of systematic reviews: PROSPERO. BJOG. 2012 Jul;119(8):903-5

Davies S. The importance of PROSPERO to the National Institute for Health Research. Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:5

Graham ID. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:6 

Kirkham JJ, Altman DG, Williamson PR. Bias due to changes in specified outcomes during the systematic review process. PLoS ONE 2010;5: e9810

Moher D. The problem of duplicate systematic reviews. BMJ 2013;347:f5040

Moher D, Booth A, Stewart L. How to reduce unnecessary duplication: use PROSPERO. BJOG 2014;DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12657

Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Kirkham J, Dwan K, Kramer S, Green S, Forbes A. Bias due to selective inclusion and reporting of outcomes and analyses in systematic reviews of randomised trials of healthcare interventions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 10. Art. No.: MR000035. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000035.pub2. 

Silagy CA, Middleton P, Hopewell S. Publishing protocols of systematic reviews: comparing what was done to what was planned. JAMA 2002;287:2831-4

Siontis KC, Hernandez-Boussard T, Ioannidis JPA. Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic: survey of published studies. BMJ 2013;347:f4501

Stewart L, Moher D, Shekelle P. Why prospective registration of systematic reviews makes sense. Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:7 

Straus S, Moher D. Registering systematic reviews. CMAJ. 2010; 182(1):13-14

Tricco AC, Pham B, Brehaut J, Tetroe J, Cappelli M, Hopewell S, Lavis JN, Berlin JA, and Moher D. An international survey indicated that unpublished systematic reviews exist. Journal of clinical epidemiology 2009: 62(6):617-623.e5

Van der Wees P, Qaseem A, Kaila M, Ollenschlaeger G, Rosenfeld R, Board of Trustees of the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N).  Prospective systematic review registration: Perspective from the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N).   Systematic Reviews 2012; 1:3

Yang ZR, Zhan SY. [PROSPERO: the new register of non-Cochrane reviews]. Zhong Hua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012; 92 (6): 422-5.

Training materials

Copies of an A5 postcard explaining How to register a review on PROSPERO can be requested for use in training packs etc. Some general information is provided in these PowerPoint presentations. 

Development and progress of PROSPERO (PowerPoint slides)

Registering a systematic review on PROSPERO (PowerPoint slides)

For additional information, slides or to request copies of the postcards please contact Alison Booth at

News and events

PROSPERO’s progress and activities 2012/13

Details of how PROSPERO has progressed have been published in a letter in the journal Systematic Reviews. Between July 2012 and June 2013, 1,106 registrations were added, bringing the total since launch in February 2011 to 1,704. The value of the growing number of records is reflected in a 117% increase in page views in the first half of 2013 compared with the first half of 2012. Developments over the year included expansion of scope, improvement of the registration form and easier access to information on how to register. To read the full letter go to 


Booth A. PROSPERO’s progress and activities 2012/13. Syst Rev 2013, 2:111

Marking the first year

Celebrating PROSPERO's first year

A guest blog by Alison Booth on the BMJ Group website

PROSPERO, looking good one year on

PROSPERO, the first open access online facility to prospectively register systematic reviews reports a successful first year with researchers from 27 countries around the world registering reviews.


Dame Sally Davies on the launch of PROSPERO

Registering Systematic Review Protocols: An international initiative Presentations from the meeting in Vancouver, BC, Canada, 18 February 2011

Best Practice in Systematic Reviews: The Importance of Protocols and Registration PLoS Medicine editorial PLoS Med. 2011 Feb;8(2):e1001009. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

New initiative to make systematic review protocols more transparent BMJ 2011; 342:d1240

UK bid to boost global transparency of health research Pharmatimes article


The Cochrane Collaboration Glossary: 

International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Glossary:

International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA)/Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi) glossary of HTA terms: