Twenty-nine trials (486 participants) were included in the review. Sample sizes ranged from five to 40 patients. Thirteen trials investigated foot orthoses, 10 trials examined motion control footwear, and 10 trials evaluated therapeutic adhesive taping; some trials evaluated more than one intervention.
Four trials were scored 7 points on the PEDro quality scale, five trials scored of 6 points and 20 trials scored 5 points. In most trials, subject allocation and treatment sequence were not randomised. The average quality scores were 5.38 for the trials of foot orthoses, 5.56 for the trials of motion control footwear and 5.43 for the trials of therapeutic adhesive taping.
There were significant reductions in calcaneal eversion observed with therapeutic adhesive taping (WMD 2.64 degrees, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.90; Ι²=92%; 10 trials), motion control footwear (WMD 2.52 degrees, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.33; Ι²=92%; 10 trials) and foot orthoses (WMD 2.24 degrees, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.07; Ι²=65%; 13 trials) compared with no-intervention control groups.
Comparisons within the foot orthoses category showed that custom-made orthoses produced greater calcaneal eversion reduction (WMD 2.35 degrees, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.45) than prefabricated orthoses (WMD 2.08 degrees, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.51).
The use of motion control footwear with dual materials in the mid-sole produced significant reductions in calcaneal eversion (WMD 2.77 degrees, 95% CI 1.74 to 3.81), although motion control footwear with heel flare or wedge modification did not produce significant differences.
High-dye and stirrup taping techniques were found to be effective in controlling calcaneal eversion (WMD 4.62 degrees, 95% CI 3.73 to 5.50), but there were non-significant changes in foot pronation with low-dye taping.
The results of the Egger's regression test did not show any evidence of publication bias for the foot orthoses analysis, but there was marginal publication bias present for the analyses of motion control footwear and therapeutic adhesive taping.