Eleven RCTs were included (number of participants not reported).
Allocation of prevention responsibilities to non-physician staff (three studies): One RCT showed a large significant increase in mammogram uptake with the use of non-physician prevention teams (18.4%, p<0.05) and a moderate increase in offered clinical breast examinations (13.7%) that was not significant. One RCT reported a large significant increase in mammogram uptake with telephone counselling by a non-physician (32%, p<0.05). One study reported an 18.8% increase in pap smear completion with telephone contact (p<0.001).
Continuous quality improvement processes (six studies): One RCT reported a 19% increase in mammogram completion (p<0.05) and moderate non-significant increases in clinical breast exams (13.0%), pap smears (15.0%) and faecal occult blood tests (13.0%). One RCT reported a moderate increase in completed clinical breast examination with continuous quality improvement (6%, p<0.005) but no significant increase in mammogram completion. One RCT showed a moderate non-significant increase in clinical breast examinations (9.0%) with continuous quality improvement. The other studies did not report statistically significant increases in screening rates with continuous quality improvement.
Planned care visit (one study): One RCT reported a moderate increase in mammogram completion (8.8%, p<0.005) with a planned care visit that used a patient initiated touch sensitive computer system.
Health Prevention Clinic (one study): Establishing a separate health screening clinic significantly improved completion rates of faecal occult blood test (47%, p<0.05).