It appeared that 48 studies were included in the review. Study participant numbers were not consistently reported, where available they ranged from less than 100 to over 448,000 patients.
Early Warning Systems (six studies):
Two studies evaluated single parameter early warning systems, there was no evidence that implementation of single parameter triggering systems alone improves hospital survival, and weak evidence of a reduction in cardiac arrest rates (2-). Four studies evaluated aggregate weighted scoring systems, there was evidence of improved hospital survival, reduced unplanned intensive care unit admissions and reduced cardiac arrest rates (2++). Evidence around length of hospital stay was inconclusive.
Medical Emergency Teams (20 studies):
Medical emergency teams improve hospital survival (2++), reduce unplanned intensive care unit admissions (2+), and reduce cardiac arrest rates (2++). Their effect on length of hospital stay and intensive care unit mortality was unclear.
Multidisciplinary Outreach Team (22 studies):
Outreach services are effective in reducing readmissions to intensive care unity (2+) and reduce hospital mortality (2+). There was weaker evidence to suggest that multidisciplinary teams are effective (2-).