Study designs of evaluations included in the review
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) with a prospective intervention were eligible for inclusion.
Specific interventions included in the review
Studies comparing a multimodal FT peri-operative care programme with TC were eligible for inclusion. The studies were required to report the use of at least 4 of 17 predefined elements to be defined as an FT programme. The FT interventions in the included studies ranged from having 4 to 12 elements (out of a possible 17). All studies reported using accelerated mobilisation and post-operative feeding as part of the intervention but other components varied between the studies.
Participants included in the review
Studies of patients undergoing elective segmental colonic resection for malignant or benign diseases were eligible for inclusion. The mean age of the participants ranged from 51 to 72 years in the FT group and from 42 to 74 years in the TC group.
Outcomes assessed in the review
Trials reporting the following outcomes were eligible for inclusion: American Society of Anaesthesiologists or Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity score, type of resection, primary hospital stay (PHS) or overall hospital stay (OHS), readmission rate, morbidity and mortality. PHS was defined as the number of days in hospital after surgery. OHS was defined as PHS plus any hospital readmissions within 30 days of surgery.
How were decisions on the relevance of primary studies made?
Three authors independently conducted the searches and selected the studies. Any disagreements were resolved through discussion.