Fifty-nine studies were included (n=4,018 patients, range 12 to 731; 13,162 implants). Four studies were RCTs (n=124 patients), 11 were controlled trials (n=1,269 patients), 23 were case series (n=1,195 patients) and 21 were retrospective studies (n=1,430 patients).
Graft material (51 studies): The overall implant survival rate was lower using autogenous bone grafts (88.9%) compared with combined grafts (94.7%) or bone substitutes alone (96.1%).
Implant surface (52 studies): The mean survival rate of implants with a machined surface was 86.3% (950 patients, 3,346 implants placed), compared with 96.7% for implants with a rough surface (2,544 patients, 8,303 implants placed).
Implant placement timing (47 studies): Implant survival rates were similar in the simultaneous technique and delayed technique subgroups, and for follow-up greater or less than 36 weeks.