Six trials were included (6,055 participants, range 408 to 1,900). Duration of follow-up ranged from one year to six years (mean 4.1 years).
Coronary artery bypass grafting was found to yield significantly better results than PCI in terms of mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.86; six RCTs; NNT=37), myocardial infarction (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.72; five RCTs; NNT=26), repeat revascularisations (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.41; six RCTs; NNT=7) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.68; four RCTs; NNT=10). There was a trend towards an excess of strokes with CABG but the result was not statistically significant (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.86; five RCTs; NNH=105).
A sensitivity analysis gave similar results for mortality when comparing trials only of patients with diabetes with the other trials. Further sensitivity analysis results were reported (for mortality, all results of sensitivity analyses remained statistically significant).
There was no evidence of important heterogeneity across studies except for repeat revascularisation (Ι²=76%). There was no evidence of publication bias for mortality and myocardial infarction.